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Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge. The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places.
Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc.
Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.
In , the International Astronomical Union IAU began naming features on Saturn 's moon Enceladus after characters and places in Burton 's translation  because "its surface is so strange and mysterious that it was given the Arabian Nights as a name bank, linking fantasy landscape with a literary fantasy".
There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist.
According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world.
Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written. Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier.
The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland, which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.
This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator.
At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings.
They often contained veiled allusions to contemporary French society. The most famous example is Voltaire 's Zadig , an attack on religious bigotry set against a vague pre-Islamic Middle Eastern background.
The Polish nobleman Jan Potocki 's novel Saragossa Manuscript begun owes a deep debt to the Nights with its Oriental flavour and labyrinthine series of embedded tales.
The work was included on a price-list of books on theology, history, and cartography, which was sent by the Scottish bookseller Andrew Millar when an apprentice to a Presbyterian minister.
This is illustrative of the title's widespread popularity and availability in the s. The Nights continued to be a favourite book of many British authors of the Romantic and Victorian eras.
Byatt , "In British Romantic poetry the Arabian Nights stood for the wonderful against the mundane, the imaginative against the prosaically and reductively rational.
Wordsworth and Tennyson also wrote about their childhood reading of the tales in their poetry. It depicts the eighth and final voyage of Sinbad the Sailor , along with the various mysteries Sinbad and his crew encounter; the anomalies are then described as footnotes to the story.
While the king is uncertain—except in the case of the elephants carrying the world on the back of the turtle—that these mysteries are real, they are actual modern events that occurred in various places during, or before, Poe's lifetime.
The story ends with the king in such disgust at the tale Scheherazade has just woven, that he has her executed the very next day. Another important literary figure, the Irish poet W.
Yeats was also fascinated by the Arabian Nights, when he wrote in his prose book, A Vision an autobiographical poem, titled The Gift of Harun Al-Rashid ,  in relation to his joint experiments with his wife Georgie Hyde-Lees , with Automatic writing.
The automatic writing, is a technique used by many occultists in order to discern messages from the subconscious mind or from other spiritual beings, when the hand moves a pencil or a pen, writing only on a simple sheet of paper and when the person's eyes are shut.
Also, the gifted and talented wife, is playing in Yeats's poem as "a gift" herself, given only allegedly by the caliph to the Christian and Byzantine philosopher Qusta Ibn Luqa , who acts in the poem as a personification of W.
In July he was asked by Louis Lambert, while in a tour in the United States, which six books satisfied him most. The list that he gave placed the Arabian Nights, secondary only to William Shakespeare's works.
The critic Robert Irwin singles out the two versions of The Thief of Baghdad version directed by Raoul Walsh; version produced by Alexander Korda and Pier Paolo Pasolini 's Il fiore delle Mille e una notte , as ranking "high among the masterpieces of world cinema.
UPA , an American animation studio, produced an animated feature version of Arabian Nights , featuring the cartoon character Mr. The animated feature film, One Thousand and One Arabian Nights , produced in Japan and directed by Osamu Tezuka and Eichii Yamamoto, featured psychedelic imagery and sounds, and erotic material intended for adults.
Shabnam Rezaei and Aly Jetha created, and the Vancouver-based Big Bad Boo Studios produced Nights , an animated television series for children, which launched on Teletoon and airs in 80 countries around the world, including Discovery Kids Asia.
Arabian Nights , in Portuguese: Popular modern video games with an Arabian Nights theme include Nadirim , a game placed in a fantasy world inspired by the tales of the Nights,  Disney's Aladdin , Prince of Persia and Sonic and the Secret Rings , and Bookworm Adventures.
Many artists have illustrated the Arabian nights , including: Famous illustrators for British editions include: Others artists include John D.
Heath Robinson and Arthur Szyk Harun ar-Rashid , a leading character of the Nights. William Harvey , The Story of the Fisherman , —40, woodcut.
Friedrich Gross , ante , woodcut. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Abon-Hassan the Wag "He found himself upon the royal couch" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of the Merchant "Sheherezade telling the stories" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Ansal-Wajooodaud, Rose-in-Bloom "The daughter of a Visier sat at a lattice window" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Gulnare "The merchant uncovered her face" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard. Frank Brangwyn , Story of Beder Basim "Whereupon it became eared corn" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Abdalla "Abdalla of the sea sat in the water, near the shore" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of Mahomed Ali "He sat his boat afloat with them" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
Frank Brangwyn , Story of the City of Brass "They ceased not to ascend by that ladder" , —96, watercolour and tempera on millboard.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Arabian Nights disambiguation. For other uses, see One Thousand and One Nights disambiguation.
Translations of One Thousand and One Nights. Encyclopaedia of Islam 3rd ed. The Arabian Nights in Transnational Perspective.
Wayne State University Press. Lyons and Ursula Lyons Penguin Classics, , vol. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. A Companion , Tauris Parke Paperbacks , p.
The Nandakaprakarana attributed to Vasubhaga, a Comparative Study. University of Toronto Thesis. Les entretiensde Nang Tantrai.
The art of storytelling, Volume VI. However, it remains far from clear what the connection is between this fragment of the early text and the Nights stories as they have survived in later and fuller manuscripts; nor how the Syrian manuscripts related to later Egyptian versions.
Al-Rabita Press, Baghdad, Islamic Review , Dec , pp. Sheherazade through the looking glass: Retrieved 19 March Story-telling techniques in the Arabian nights.
Also in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, v. The Arabian nights encyclopedia, Volume 1. Translation in the contact zone: Antoine Galland's Mille et une nuits: In Makdisi, Saree and Felicity Nussbaum: A History of the Text and its Reception.
Arabic Literature in the Post-Classical Period. Retrieved 2 July A Companion , Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , p. A Companion , Tauris Parke Palang-faacks , pp.
Thousand Nights and One Night. Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved October 2, Boyer and Kenneth J.
Retrieved November 16, Centenary Tribute to W. Springer — via Google Books. Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons.
History Literature Magic Outline Sources. The Pornhub team is always updating and adding more porn videos every day. We have a huge free DVD selection that you can download or stream.
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Login or sign up. Remember me on this computer not recommended on public or shared computers. Forgot Username or Password?Es dauert etwas länger als normal. Naja was solls, zu ner Medaille hätte es eh nicht gereicht,. Spielpunkte Heute Diese Woche Total. Dieses Spiel ist aufgrund der neuen Datenschutzbestimmungen zurzeit gesperrt, und www. So ein Müll… Geschrieben am Ali indessen beschwört die Soldaten, sich loyal zu Harun ar-Raschid zu stellen. Level einfach nicht weiterkommt…. Hätte gern eine Antwort, danke im voraus. Kamar hatte Visionen, in denen Scheherazade als zukünftige Königin genannt wird. Dabei verliebt er sich in Scheherazade. Nacht abbricht, benannt nach dem französischen Orientalisten Antoine Galland — , der diese Handschrift erworben hatte.
For indeed Thou appointest unto Thy creatures that which Thou wilt and that which Thou has foreordained unto them; wherefore are some weary and others are at rest and some enjoy fair fortune and affluence, whilst others suffer the extreme of travail and misery, even as I do.
Each morn that dawns I wake in travail and in woe And strange is my condition and my burden gars me pine: Many others are in luck and from miseries are free, And fortune never loads them with loads the like o' mine: They live their happy days in all solace and delight, Eat drink and dwell in honour 'mid the noble and the digne: All living things were made of a little drop of sperm, Thine origin is mine and my provenance is thine: Yet the difference and the distance 'twixt the twain of us are far As the difference of savour of vinegar and wine But at Thee, O God All-wise!
I venture not to rail Whose ordinance is just and whose justice cannot fail. The core of the story is that a porter living a lowly life smells sweet smells and hears enchanting music and feels envious about the opulence of Sindbad's lifestyle, and further assumes that it was bitter fate or chance alone that led to their disparity in success.
This simple theme is hijacked with incongruent religious outpouring that essentially attempts to eliminate or invalidate the porter's feeling of envy entirely and preemptively, because the editor seems to have confused the emotion of envy with a blasphemy against Allah's divine Will, and worked excessively to correct this 'error'.
However, without the porter's commonplace envy and self-pity the narrative structure collapses, because it is precisely the porter's ignorant assumption and pining that Sindbad hadn't earned his wealth which prompts Sindbad to relate the tales of his voyages and the many hardships he endured.
You cannot reconcile even a single aspect of the Sindbad opening if the lowly man understands, from the outset, that Allah's Will is perfect and that there is nothing to bemoan in the disparity between himself and Sindbad--it voids the logic of the entire narrative premise.
Contains all the tales plus amazing illustrations!!! I'm so in love with this book! There are at least two different versions of this book with the same covers.
One is the version the other is the version. The difference can be seen in a few different areas. The most noticeable is the inside cover art is much different as are is the illustrations inside.
The version also has Arabic writing on the front and back cover. The replaces that writing with stylized loops and swirls.
I guess for the version they wanted to avoid any controversy that having a book about Arabia with Arabic writing on the cover might cause.
The version has illustrations that different events in the book that are very tame and mostly unimportant to the plot.
The editors really really changed the illustrations and it was clearly to be more PC despite the fact that this book is absolutely not PC.
This book has very sexist, racist, and bigoted views of everyone not of high standing in the Arabic world of the time.
The descriptions are very vivid and the pictures in the old version accurately depict what the text describes.
The biggest difference is the addition and omission of different stories in each version. I originally received the version and had read almost half of it before accidentally water damaging the book to the point where it didn't shut all the way.
So I ordered another copy and received the version. I immediately noticed the different illustrations and then noticed they have different stories in each.
For the most part the text is exactly the same, word for word, page for page with the exception of the 7th voyage of Sinbad where the version adds three pages of an 8th voyage that wasn't really a voyage and did nothing to add to the story so I'm not sure why that was added and that finished with him calling it the 7th voyage weird.
There are about three different places where different stories were used. So I am currently reading the stories from the old version that weren't in the new version.
The old version's alternate stories were better in my opinion, however they're all very engaging once you get used to the racist, sexist, and bigoted storytelling of the time, region, and author.
To better appreciate this masterpiece of literature you need to read the whole thing. The complete version, also translated by Richerd Burton is a 16 volume edition.
Yes 16 books just like this one, so you are missing a lot by buying this book, which is only a collectors piece. Leather Bound Verified Purchase.
This is a worthless edition, because it includes none of Burton's footnotes. Not a single one! I relied on a 5-star comment above, which said the footnotes are printed on the bottom of each page, but obviously the reviewer is talking of a completely different edition.
The original with the footnotes added at the end. Not the edition to read to the kids unless you are a free thinker who wants to explain it all.
Burton was not a PC personage and the stories are ribald. Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. I enjoyed it immensely. These stories are not just children's entertainment, but, like Sufi teaching stories, have profound meanings on different levels.
By the way, this is not the Burton translation; it is by Andrew Lang. One person found this helpful. See all reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.
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Grimm's Complete Fairy Tales. Bulfinch's Mythology Leather-bound Classics. Tales of 1, Nights: Volume 1 Penguin Classics.
Seven Novels Leather-bound Classics. There's a problem loading this menu right now. The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa.
Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic , Persian , Greek , Indian , Jewish and Turkish  folklore and literature.
A Thousand Tales , which in turn relied partly on Indian elements. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord.
Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1, or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion.
Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains , although some are longer. In his bitterness and grief, he decides that all women are the same.
Eventually the vizier , whose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it.
The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion.
The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins another one, and the king, eager to hear the conclusion of that tale as well, postpones her execution once again.
This goes on for one thousand and one nights, hence the name. The tales vary widely: Numerous stories depict jinns , ghouls , apes ,  sorcerers, magicians, and legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally.
Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid , his Grand Vizier , Jafar al-Barmaki , and the famous poet Abu Nuwas , despite the fact that these figures lived some years after the fall of the Sassanid Empire , in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set.
Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, and that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture.
The different versions have different individually detailed endings in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon, in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife, in some other things happen that make the king distracted but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life.
The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature.
While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy , and in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen —and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life.
The history of the Nights is extremely complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it currently exists came about.
Robert Irwin summarises their findings:. In the s and s a lot of work was done on the Nights by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged.
Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a composite work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia. At some time, probably in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Layla , or 'The Thousand Nights'.
This collection then formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights. The original core of stories was quite small. Then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.
Also, perhaps from the 10th century onwards, previously independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation [ In the early modern period yet more stories were added to the Egyptian collections so as to swell the bulk of the text sufficiently to bring its length up to the full 1, nights of storytelling promised by the book's title.
Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as frame stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception of the Nights.
The influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi is particularly notable. It is possible that the influence of the Panchatantra is via a Sanskrit adaptation called the Tantropakhyana.
Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil,  Lao,  Thai  and Old Javanese.
In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books the "Fihrist" in Baghdad. He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed "evening tales and fables".
He also writes disparagingly of the collection's literary quality, observing that "it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling".
In the s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested on internal rather than historical evidence that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa' may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of the Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights.
This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century. In the midth century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nights , dating from the 9th century.
This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the Nights. Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials.
One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid died , his vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d.
Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales.
It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden edition , which is based above all on the Galland manuscript.
It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written,  and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.
The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recension , does contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core.
It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.
He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo , a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab.
As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version".
The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane , , were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night , which were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".
Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. Mardrus , issued from to It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy.
Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.
In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C. Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin.
It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French.
As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "267o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.
In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions.
An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the One Thousand and One Nights , in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.
Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman.
An early example of the " story within a story " technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights , which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.
The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced.
In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.
The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories.
Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter.
In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.
Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience".
This technique dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny.
The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale.
By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality.
The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself.
Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".
Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds".
This technique is also found in One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.
A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which can be found in Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible.
Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis.
A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure.
The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.
The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.
Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight.
Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.
In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place.
This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis ,  alongside the " Sindibad " story cycle.
Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story".
This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole.
Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story.
In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".
This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights and earlier. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.
In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size.
The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights.
Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.
An example of the murder mystery  and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists  and detective fiction elements  was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman" ,  one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.
In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman. Harun gives his vizier, Ja'far , three days to find the culprit or be executed.
At the end of three days, when Ja'far is about to be executed for his failure, two men come forward, both claiming to be the murderer.
As they tell their story it transpires that, although the younger of them, the woman's husband, was responsible for her death, some of the blame attaches to a slave, who had taken one of the apples mentioned in the title and caused the woman's murder.
Harun then gives Ja'far three more days to find the guilty slave. When he yet again fails to find the culprit, and bids his family goodbye before his execution, he discovers by chance his daughter has the apple, which she obtained from Ja'far's own slave, Rayhan.
Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.
The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple.
The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.
This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him.
The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.
Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature.
Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.
The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H.